gothic civilization

When art periods are defined in all mediums, transformations of the Romanesque style into the Gothic style, and the transformations of the Gothic to the Renaissance style are used which are easily identifiable in architecture, although the graphic arts have evolved at a different pace and in many ways.The emergence of secular art in this period coincided with the rise of cities, the establishment of universities, the increase of trade, the establishment of a money-based economy, and the creation of a bourgeois class capable of sponsoring arts work and commissions that lead to the spread of illuminated paintings and manuscripts.The increase in literacy and the growth of secular vernacular literature encouraged the representation of secular subjects in art. Some of the artists were bold enough to sign their names. The monastic systems - especially Cistercian and Cartesian - were important constructivist systems that spread the style and developed various forms of it throughout Europe. Old and New Testament scenes were shown side by side in works such as The Telescope of Human Salvation and Church Decoration. Artists such as Goto, Fra Angelico, and Pietro Lorenzetti in Italy - along with early Dutch painting - presented a more natural realism and humanism to art. Iconography was affected by changes in the glamor of divinity, with the spread of depicting the concept of Mary’s transition instead of the subject of the death of the Virgin who was older than him, and by devotional practices such as modern devotion, which resulted in new treatments of Christ in subjects such as the man of sorrows and a pita, as these two topics emphasized his human suffering and weakness in the movement Christ is depicted showing his chest covered with wounds of his sufferings, even during Judgment Day. Over the course of this period, the iconographic features that had arisen in the plagiarized Gospels were eliminated and gradually eliminated under the pressure of the clergy such as the midwives in the cradle, although some considered them as firm and harmless.The 'Gothic' description of this art was first used in a letter by Raphael to Pope Leo X in 1518 and later circulated by the Italian artist and writer Giorgio Vasari, who used it as early as 1530, describing the Gothic art as a 'brutal and barbaric disorder'.Raphael claimed that the pointed arches in northern architecture were a continuation of primitive huts made by Germanic forest dwellers by bending trees together, a myth that would later resurface with a more positive feeling in the writings of the German Romantic movement."Gothic art" was subjected to severe criticism from French authors such as Poallot, La Bruyere, and Rousseau, before it became a recognized form of art, and its formula was stable. 

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