Mummification in ancient Egypt is a mystery of the Pharaohs

The Egyptian religion was associated with the doctrine of the Baath and immortality by their belief that death is a door to cross into the world of permanent life and they were fond of it. They called it the life of eternal paradise and the highest they yearn for is to go to the underworld, which made the Egyptians look for a way to secret the immortality and they invented the art of embalming, Question marks and ambiguities when mentioned among the people, mummification is one of the secrets of the category of ancient Egyptians and tried to preserve this secret and try not to share it with anyone from neighboring countries, but the secret did not last until the end as researchers were able to identify these secrets The records of classical writers and historians who visited Egypt and the information provided by modern science through the examination and analysis of bodies and the graves found in the graves and tools used for mummification, the truth despite the advancement of the art of mummification, but good methods of mummification of the first and second class remained the monopoly of kings, princes and rich people Ordinary Egyptians did not mummify their bodies in these ways because of their high costs. 

Mummification in ancient Egypt is a mystery of the Pharaohs

Mummification One of the most strange known to humans and mummification is the preservation of the bodies of the dead by chemicals, the human body maintains its appearance and looks like alive and may benefit the mummification to meet some requirements for some religions that delay the burial for several days or have to move the body to another place to prevent the mummification of the root of the body, and so The ancients used mummification because they glorified their kings and kept their bodies without decaying. Thus the ancient man knew the secret of mummification and used it with the Egyptian kings and princes who was called Pharaoh. 


• Mummification in Ancient Egypt

Mummification was linked to the idea of immortality , which the Egyptians believed. The Fifth Dynasty was placed in a museum in London, but the museum was destroyed in an air raid on London in 1941 in World War II, but then many mummies were discovered in Fayoum next to the pyramid of Amenhotep III and turned out to be people of the public and not kings. 


• Mummification date

Mummification was a highly skilled profession in ancient Egypt 4,000 years ago. The Egyptians believed that the presence of the mummy is necessary for the survival of the soul in the body and varied methods of mummification depending on the place of the deceased in the state and the body was soaked in sodium solution and then filled the gaps with oils and bleaches and resin veins and when The addition of tar to the mummy appears black. One of the most important discoveries of the mummy is the body of King Menkaure inside his pyramid, which dates back to 4,500. 


Mummification in ancient Egypt is a mystery of the Pharaohs

 In 1700, mummification was done by injecting arteries with a special material and recipe invented by the Dutch anatomist Frederick Reich. This recipe preserves the body of the deceased as if alive. Today, the embalmed withdraw fluids from the body and then injected the body with fluids containing sterile formaldehyde, mercury chloride, chloride and alcohol. Studying embalming today in private schools and in some countries, students of this workmanship mastered them and after the completion of the study tests to get a funeral profession for the dead. Mummification in the United States and European countries does not receive much attention.


• Mummification accessories 

In addition to the mummification tools found other accessories are:


Mummification in ancient Egypt is a mystery of the Pharaohs

1. Coffins and coffins

 It is one of the ways to preserve the body by placing it inside a bowl of wood or twisted straw, which is called the coffin. In the Third Dynasty, it was rectangular boxes of white limestone and was devoid of decoration. In the Old Kingdom, it was limited to recording the name of the body and its titles. On the sarcophagus, in the New Kingdom only the positions of the decoration have changed, not their structure.


1- Washing and disinfection

The mummified to wash the deceased and clean it from the dirt by placing it in the wash basin, and at this stage we rely on the views of the tomb of Thoth- Hetep Balbarsha (20th century BC), the goal of washing with water and salt Natrun, which helps to rebirth and birth.


2. Brain and viscera removal

The embalmer absorbed water in the body of the deceased and removed the viscera separately to dry it has been removed first brain and then the organs of the abdomen and chest. It has been mentioned in one of the channels of YouTube and called "Trotat Pharaonic" it


They were the first steps of mummification followed by the ancient Egyptian before washing and disinfection.


First: brain removal

The embalmers remove the brain through the purified bone or from an opening behind the neck. The embalmer uses a long copper machine and traps it inside the skull of the deceased, moves the other end outside the body, and cuts small pieces to remove it from the nostrils. Pine trees inserted through the nose of the nose.


Second: viscera extraction

The embalmer takes out the heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, liver and kidneys by making an opening in the left side of the abdomen. These organs are placed in the salt of natrun, painted with rice oil, wrapped in linen and placed in canopic jars, and then returns the heart and kidneys in the body of the deceased because the heart has a role in the afterlife Like putting intentions.


Mummification in ancient Egypt is a mystery of the Pharaohs

3 - Putting fillers

This stage plays the role that the embalmer intended in case 70 days are complete.


First: temporary fillers

These materials are placed in the body of the dead and do not remove it because it kills bacteria , but is removed from the body after the drying process are three types of flax rolls, namely: rolls with natron salt to absorb water, linen rolls absorb residual fluid, linen rolls containing aromatic substances. 


Second: permanent fillers

Filler materials that remain forever, including: natron salt, sawdust, bitter cinnamon, linen rolls dipped in resin glue, onions.


Subcutaneous fillers

They are placed under the skin of the dead give the body features when he was alive to be recognized by the soul, placed in the middle layer of the skin is the dermis and these materials: mud, linen, sand, sawdust, butter and soda, these materials are placed through openings in the arms, legs and back.


4. Drying:

The mummified dumped large quantities of natron salt on the body of the dead for 40 days to rid the body of the body's weight, which is water, and also rid of the foods eaten by the deceased, and the salt of natrun consists of carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride and sodium sulfate so it plays an important role in the drying process, at this stage the deceased was It is placed on a slanted stone bed and at the top of the top of the bed surface there is a channel where water collects from the body and then collects in a basin under the bed.


Pouring oils and fats

This step addresses the physical changes after drying such as body color, burning of skin tissue and shrinkage of fat under the skin, and the embalmed pour a boiling white liquid which is resin on the body of the dead, the materials used in this step: resin, rice oil, fun paint, beeswax, turpentine, It took mummified ten days to do the fat and wrapped in linen and clothes, and after finishing mummified oils close the openings of the body such as eyes, ears, open the nose and mouth by pressing the eyes to fall and put on top of the onion crust to prevent bacteria, and plugs the ear and nose openings with resin tablets, and treat the mouth Fill it with linen then The lips of the embalming fear the embalmed from entering evil spirits was affixed to the opening amulet eye protector (eye of Horus) The lips of the hole was sewn by linen tendons and beeswax bees.


Shrouding

After putting the face dye and put wigs, sandals and ornaments, the priest (Schmu) then wrapped the body two weeks shroud and accompany each roll reading the mantra. This stage aims to provide additional protection for the body to prevent decomposition , colored shroud in red and finish mummification steps to put the mask on the face of the deceased and then the supervisor read the spells of the Book of the Dead and buried the embalmed body. 



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