Hamlet's tragic life starts from knowing his father has died and his dear mother Gertrude has been married her dead husband's brother Claudius, who has taken over the throne, just one month after his death. He feels disgusting for everyone has got over King Hamlet too fast. But he knows that he could do nothing at all, therefore he kept himself in temper. However, after discovering his father has been murdered by Claudius and his lover Ophelia acted unusually which made Hamlet sense that she did not love him anymore. He was not able to change the circumstances so he feels all alone and led to his mood of grief.
When Horatio was first told about the appearance of the apparition, he was skeptical, " Horatio says 'this but our fantasy And will not let belief take hold of him". When the ghost was first sighted in the play, Bernardo remarks that the ghost looks similar to the King Hamlet, and Marcellus reasons with Horatio that he should address the ghost. Horatio reacts to the ghost with tormenting fear and surprise but does note that the ghost looks like the King Hamlet. Horatio speaks to the ghost with " What art thou that usurps'st this time of night,". And demands the ghost to respond to him. This usage of the word " thou" causes the ghost to exit. Marcellus comments that the ghost was offended, meaning that by Horatio speaking to the ghost of the King with such lack of respect and with demands the ghost left.
Horatio initially assumes that the ghost appearance must mean that there is something wrong with the current government, " this bodes some strange eruption to our state", and that the appearance is foreshadowing some ominous event that will soon occur. There are intense war preparations in Denmark, and Bernardo and Marcellus question Horatio are he knows the reason behind such actions. Horatio responds that there are rumors that the King Hamlet, who was very prideful in manner, was challenged to battle Fortinbras of Norway and did kill the King Fortinbras. Kind Fortinbras forfeited his land to whoever conquered him, but King Hamlet made a deal and bargained some of the given lands to the son of King Fortinbras. The young Fortinbras is uncontrollable with his rage against King Hamlet and Denmark and has been attacking the edges of the land with a spirit of adventure, and is set on his attack to regain the lost lands. Denmark is preparing aggressively for the imminent battle against young Fortinbras of Norway. Horatio is suggesting a connection of Julius Cesar's and the fall of Rome, in that he discusses that King Hamlet's death will lead to the fall of the land. Horatio chooses the example of Rome to emphasize King Hamlet's role in the destruction. Both Cesar and King Hamlet are prideful in nature and have had their pride challenged and their subsequent actions leading to their death. Rome is also known as a grand empire of strength but after the assassination of Julius Cesar, the Roman Republic collapsed and ended.
Hamlet is portrayed as having a very sensitive and very moral nature. He had been greatly shocked by the things that had happened, and the suspicions he harbored constituted a direct challenge to his moral faith. If the truth was as he feared, then there was an occasion to question the righteousness and justice of the world and to wonder if life were worth living. This, apparently, was Hamlet's first encounter with great trouble, with the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, and it proved a great trial to his moral nature.
The ghost appears and told Hamlet that he was his father, King Hamlet. He told the prince how he had been killed by Claudius after he put poison in his ear, as he slept in the garden. He wanted Hamlet to exact revenge for him. He told him that Claudius had committed a foul act, denigrated Denmark and had corrupted Hamlet's mother Gertrude. He told Hamlet to leave Gertrude alone, to her own conscience. The next time, the ghost appeared in front of Hamlet, was immediately after he had killed Polonius in Gertrude's chamber (Act III, scene IV). The ghost claimed that he had come to remind Hamlet of his target and that with Claudius being alive, his purpose had not, yet, been achieved.
By religion Hamlet as a Christian must not kill, but by honor, he must avenge his father. Hamlet raises the idea of nothingness, he says, people will leave everything behind, and then they will be buried alone, they take only their deeds with them nothing else. In such a small hole, and we will meet God naked.
"To be" or "Not to be" is Hamlet's choice to make the entire soliloquy points out Hamlet's grief, contradictory and frustration.
In this soliloquy, Hamlet explores the ideas of being and nothingness by asserting a basic premise: We are born, we live, and we die. Because no one has returned from death to report, we remain ignorant of what death portends. Hence, Hamlet's dilemma encapsulates several universal human questions: Do we try to affect our fate? Do we take action in the face of great sorrow, or do we merely wallow in the suffering? Can we end our troubles by opposing them? How do we know? What is the nature of death? Do we sleep in death, or do we cease to sleep, thereby finding no rest at all?
Hamlet hopes that death is nothingness, that death will "end the heartache and the thousand natural shocks that flesh is heir to," that death will end thinking, knowing, and remembering. But he fears that, in death, he will be haunted interminably by bad dreams of life itself, by dreams heavy with the memory of fear and pain. Ultimately, he says, that's why humans dread death. We fear that our consciences will torment us forever. Thus, human beings choose life, with its torment and burdens, chiefly to avoid death, the great unknown. However, death is, like life, inescapable, and Hamlet curses his luck for having been born at all.
Hamlet's dilemma underlies the entire soliloquy. If he kills Claudius, he will assuredly be killed himself. Hamlet is not sure he is ready for death; life is all he knows, and he fears the unknown. Further, he is not yet ready to take responsibility for sending another human being into the throes of death. He understands his duty to avenge the murder that is now disclosed, and he accepts responsibility for the Ghost's torment, but he knows that by killing Claudius he could be consigning himself to his father's fate for all eternity.
The fact that his mother's lover is also her husband's murderer exacerbates Gertrude's crime of incest. Hamlet is bereft of choice. He may have an aversion to violence, and he may live by strict Christian principles, but he must avenge his father's honor. Hamlet sees no way to honor his father except by killing Claudius. Doubly impelled by his father's orders and by tradition, Hamlet becomes a prisoner of his obligation for revenge.
Hamlet is offered an opportunity to exact his revenge upon Claudius, who is seeking atonement for his misdeeds. In one foolish moment, Hamlet spares his uncles' life. His belief is that if Claudius were to die during confession, Claudius's' spirit would ascend to heaven and Hamlet will not accept this. Hamlet figures he will wait until "He is drunk asleep, or in his rage, or in the pleasure of his bed, at game a- swearing, or about some act that has no relish of salvation. Hamlet's obvious plan is to wait until Claudius sins and then avenge his father. This move cost Hamlet his life.