The ozone layer is part of the atmosphere surrounding the planet, centered heavily in the lower part of the stratosphere, discovered by Charles Fabri and Henry Poisson in 1913, a blue layer, also named because it contains a heavy weight gas, and plays an important role in the ozone layer Our life, where short ultraviolet radiation is inaccessible to the Earth's surface, and ozone gas contains three atoms of oxygen when it interacts with the sun's ultraviolet rays and gives the planet the oxygen necessary to breathe. And the ozone layer is one of the stratospheric layers that represent the second layer in the planet's atmosphere, which consists of several layers. The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is small, where there are 3 molecules of ozone per 10 million molecules in the air, but they play an important role It absorbs parts of the solar radiation that hit the Earth, and although some solar radiation is needed for life, many of the radiation can harm living organisms. Can penetrate the protective layers of living organisms, such as skin, and destroy DNA molecules
Role and importance of the Earth's ozone layer:
It works to provide oxygen to the breath of humans and other organisms on Earth, protecting them from ultraviolet rays. Achieve equilibrium and moderation of the earth's temperature, so that it does not exceed the normal limit. Help maintain the diet of humans, animals and plants on the surface of the earth. Supports the ability of plants to grow naturally, and protect it from diseases that affect plants and harm their growth.
What are the reasons that destroy the ozone layer?
1- Nitrogen oxides, such as nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, emanating from some types of aircraft that fly at the level of the ozone layer.
2. Global warming
3. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used in air conditioners and refrigerators anywhere in homes or cars, or in perfumery Pesticides and medicines.
4. Hallons used in firefighting.
5. Methyl bromide used as an insecticide to sterilize stocks of agricultural crops and to sterilize agricultural soil itself.
Damage from ozone layer erosion
- The depletion of the ozone layer and the increase of ultraviolet rays lead to the formation of the black cloud "smog", which remains suspended in the air for days, resulting in a high mortality rate due to the lack of respiratory function and suffocation.
- The erosion of the ozone layer and the penetration of ultraviolet radiation in increasing quantities to the surface of the earth weakens the efficiency of the human immune system and makes it more vulnerable to infection with viruses or bacteria such as tuberculosis and other diseases.
- With increasing corrosion in the ozone layer, it can cause significant damage to the eye such as cataracts (or cataracts) or glaucoma.
- Human skin tumors, which are expected to reach around the world to an estimated (300) thousand cases of skin cancers annually.
- Worsening global warming crisis.
- Affected plant and agricultural life, as there are some plants that have a high sensitivity to ultraviolet rays that affect their production and harm the mineral content and nutritional values and therefore a poor agricultural crop.
- Marine life, which includes fish and phytoplankton cannot escape the destructive effects of ozone layer imbalance... These marine organisms have a significant role in maintaining environmental balance, especially phytoplankton, where they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and thus supply oxygen to other organisms and mitigation from global warming.
- Climate changes in the weather, especially at higher temperatures, which in turn increase the dilemma of air pollution (air pollution Vido). Since the surface temperature affects the movement of air up and down and therefore on the movement of air pollution between dispersion and sediment, the rise of pollutants follows the process of continuous heating of the bottom layer of the gas cover on the surface of the earth during daylight hours, which peak during the summer months as a result of the spread of pollutants With the movement of air, the decline of these pollutants and non- transmission with air arises from the process of continuous cooling during the night hours, which increases during the winter, which leads to the deposition of these pollutants.
- Forest fires, desertification and sea- level rise are many beaches in the world, all caused by the ozone hole.
Ways to maintain the ozone layer
- To minimize the consumption and release of halons and CFCs into the atmosphere
- Avoid purchasing air conditioners and refrigerators whose components contain substances that damage the ozone layer. Periodic maintenance.
- Avoid as much as possible from the use of sprays and air fresheners containing these materials, and replace them with containers and materials friendly to environmental standards. Avoid buying fire extinguishers with halon components, and avoid using them for no reason.
- Avoid the use of white packaging materials to provide protection for electronic parts.